"Not equal among you are those who spent (freely) and fought before the Victory, (with those who did so later). Those are higher in rank than those who spent (freely) and fought afterwards. But to all has God promised a goodly (reward). And God is well acquainted with all that ye do" (Al-Hadid, 57/10).
As is clearly seen in this verse, Allah promises Heaven to all the Companions. Just as the Companions, who had many admirable traits, were given the good news of Paradise in general, there are also those who were promised Heaven individually while here on earth. The term Ashara Mubashara (the ten who were promised Paradise) designates those who were given these glad tidings by the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) while they were living in this world. In addition to the term "Ashara Mubashara," the phrase with the same meaning - "al-Mubashara bil-Jannah" - was also used. http://www.lastprophet.info/en/the-ashara-mubashara-the-ten-companions-promised-/companions-given-the-good-tidings-of-paradise-ashara-mubashara.html
al-Tirmithi, Volume 5, Page 605, Hadith 3748
abu Daoud, #4649 and #4650
- Prophet Muhammad (SAW)
- Abu Bakr
- Ali ibn Abu Talib
- Zubair bin al-Awwam
- Saad bin Abi Waqas
- Saeed bin Zaid
- Abdul Rahman ibn Awf
- Saad bin Malik
- Abu `Ubaida bin al-Jarrah
- They struggle in narrowing down who the ten are. One time they insert Saad bin Abi Waqqas and another they put Saad bin Malik in his place
- The first of the hadith did not mention Imam Ali, nor Ibn al-Jarrah; yielding only seven promised Paradise, of course, not counting the prophet (SAW)
- The first and third are essentially the same hadeeth, by the same person, but the order of those in Paradise is different, one person added and another dropped, and only seven people are listed in Abu Daouds'
- Listing of the Prophet (SAW) among those promised Paradise is something that confirms forgery! Does anyone really believe that his companions enter Paradise and he will be left behind? He need not advertise that - it is a given
- Both narrators are telling the hadith about themselves. Both narrators are including themselves in the group promised paradise. According to Islamic law, when someone praises others by praising himself, it is disregarded altogether. The same is true if someone bears witness for someone else, while at the same time, even partially self-serving, his testimony is rejected
- The history of the so called ten does not mandate this great reward, at the expense of exclusion of other pious companions, who in fact remained unblemished till their demise. Bukhari and Muslim did not even set aside a virtues section on neither Saad bin Zaid nor AbdulRahman bin `Awf, while Bukhari has a sections for Mu'awiya, one hadeeth for Khalid bin al-Waleed and just a section heading for Mus'ab bin `Umai
- Saad bin Malik, in fact, is not among the 10 highly regarded by the Sunnis
- Note the placement of the Imam Ali is, conveniently, the fourth in a group which does not contain a single supporter of the Imam from among the companions of the prophet. Accordingly, the Sunnis have agreed on holding these ten in high regard. Clearly, the nine mentioned with the Imam are his adversaries and none were on his side
- The mentioned people will enter paradise with accountability. Which shows that their actions and deeds till their death will earn them Allah's pleasure.
- The mentioned people will enter paradise without accountability. Which implies that no matter what these people do, Allah will ignore their sins and treachery if any, and will allow them entry in paradise.
- The mentioned people will eventually enter paradise after being punished for their sins, if any
A reasonable person can not judge, unconditionally, that an ordinary fallible human being is guaranteed paradise, therefore, is immune from Hell Fire. One who is open to the possibility of committing sinful acts, by his nature, can not be predictable. Especially, if promised paradise while not infallible, he would have the tendency to act freely due to his feeling of assurance that his acts will have no bearing on his outcome. It is, therefore, not logical nor reasonable that the prophet would promise such an outcome early on to people of an unknown future.
If this hadith were indeed true, then how come one did not see Uthman use it in protest against those who found it lawful to murder him. Nor did any of his companions come to his aid, protesting the unlawfulness of killing someone who is guaranteed paradise. Actually, it would have been unlawful for them to stay silent in this matter. The fact of the matter is the hadith were fabricated at a later date.
Besides the questionable hadith, what convinces you that the 10 are guaranteed heaven? Talha and Zubair fought Imam Ali, resulted the killing of hundreds of Muslims at Jamal, and all three of them will be in heaven? History testifies that anyone who fought Hz Ali, was on the wrong path, whether it be the Kufar of mecca, the Jews of Khaiber, the wife of the prophet, Ayesha, or the great companion Muawiya. Do you believe that the murderer and the murdered, both will be in paradise even if they opposed each other and fought each other which resulted in killings of their own selves as well as many other Muslims.
All became Muslim in the early years of Islam. They made great service to the Prophet and the Islamic cause. They migrated. They participated in the battle of Badr. They swore allegiance to the Prophet at Hudaybiya. There are many narrations in hadith sources regarding their virtues. Sources of sound hadiths begin with narrations on these Companions http://www.lastprophet.info/en/the-ashara-mubashara-the-ten-companions-promised-/companions-given-the-good-tidings-of-paradise-ashara-mubashara.html