Q2. if fadak was inheritance ,why wives of Rasool Allah(saw) had no share in it ?
Q3. As far as the verse of Zakariya (as) is concerned then the verse says that give me a heir who inherit from me and Aal of Jacob! now if this is material inheritance why son would inherit from the whole Aal of Jacob? do you inherit from your father or whole family?
1) Quran 27:16 says; "And Solomon inherited David." It does not say, ".. Only Solomon..". It says, "..And Solomon.." And shia muslims show this verse as proof for those taking the sunni hadith; "We prophets leave no inheritance." literally. So, basic question is, why take this sunni hadith literally, but not Quranic verse such? Whereas, as far as I know, wahabis take even the metaphorical verses about attributes of God literally, and unfortunately attribute body organs and movements to God (just like al-mujasima). So, why not take the verse about inheritance literally? And why look for an esoteric dimension and limit it to metaphor just in this case? So, it tells me, wahabi analysis of Quran is sided. It does not shape itself according to Quran but it tries to shape the Quran with interpretations to suit an agenda. And the agenda is to try to bash shia and sunni islam. Especially shia islam, because in politics there is no better than shia muslims.
Shia islamic belief is that Quranic verses should be interpreted by pure ones (Prophet Muhammad and Ahlulbayt) and by those inspiring from them. If others do it on their own, they may fall into error and distort the message. Anyway. Regarding the verse and all other verses in Quran, islamic belief is that, we should never limit the meanings of verses. Let me quote from a tafsir for an-Naml 16;
In this verse, at first it points to inheriting Solomon from his father David. It says:
“ And Solomon inherited David …”
Here, commentators have some different ideas as for the meaning of heritage and that what that is:
Some believe that it is only the heritage of knowledge because, according to their own thought, prophets do not leave any heritage of their own properties.
Some others have mentioned inheritance is confined to propertyand government,because thisword recallsthat concept to the mind, before anything else.
And same commentators have rendered it into the language of speaking with the birds.
But regarding to the fact that the verse is general and, in the later Qur’ānic sentences the words are also about both knowledge and all other merits, there is no reason to limit the concept of the verse. Thus, Solomon had been the heir of all merits of his father. The traditions narrated from Ahl-ul-Bayt (a.s.) have reasoned to this verse before those who said that prophets do not leave any heritage and laid emphasis on the tradition which says: “We prophets do not leave any heritage”. They have reasoned that since the said tradition contrasts to the Book of Allah, it is invalid.
What about other children of David? Did they not inherit anything from David?
a) "Inheritance" of Prophethood: Prophethood is not inherited due to bloodline. Because, "Allah chooses for Himself whom He wills..." (Quran, 42:13) and He "... chooses from the angels messengers and from the people." (Quran, 22:75). So, it is God to choose messengers to guide us. And "He knows what is before them and what will be after them. And to Allah will be returned [all] matters." (Quran, 22:76). So, we can not question God why He chose Joseph (to take the message) and not other children of Jacob or why He chose Solomon over other children of David or Ali over other companions of Muhammad [knowing that there is no Prophet after Muhammad.. The point I make is related to Wilayah (guardianship) not Nubuwwah (prophethood). As stated in Hadith al-Manzilah, Ghadir Khumm and many other occasions..] So, God chooses messengers in and out of a lineage, and when He appoints messengers and leaders in an offspring, he does not have to appoint every children as such (see, Quran, 2:124). However, when He chooses a sibt [offspring; (grand)son] of Prophet as Prophet (e.g. Jesus) or Imam (e.g. Hussain), we metaphorically say they inherited the legacy.
c) Inheritance of Knowledge: Knowledge is not inherited. It is acquired. And whether in bloodline or else, one acquiring the knowledge of the previous ones can be called inheritor as metaphor.
d) Inheritance of Wealth: Wealth is inherited. And Solomon and his brothers were not denied of this right. The verse clearly states "Solomon inherited David." But, it does not mention whether or not his brothers inherited. So, the verse is just about Solomon inheriting. And we can not limit the concept of inheriting in the verse. So, all children of David inherited David's wealth, but Solomon inherited both wealth and government (succession).
2) Fadak was not inheritance according to shia islamic sources. It was a gift from Prophet Muhammad to Lady Fatimah. And, if we go with sunni sources and suppose it was inheritance, you should know that "widows do not inherit anything from the land of a house or a garden or a farm, or from any other land, nor do they inherit from the proceeds of such lands." And as al-Ahzab 30-31 states, respected wives of the Holy Prophet must have been very careful, knowing that, they were not supposed to leave their houses (33:33) or contact with men unless they had to (33:32)..
3) Correction. Inheritance of Prophets are NOT JUST material. But it can include material objects (usually for tabarruk, blessings). And, it surely can be if God wishes. See Saul and a certain group of believers inheriting the holy relics of aal (progeny) of Moses and aal of Aaroon, see Quran, 2:248
- We must not limit the meanings of concepts in Quranic verses. Prophets can inherit from one another in Knowledge, Prophethood and Kingdom (that is succession) (but not as a result of lineage, rather on divine selection with and with no need of prayers) as well as in wealth.
- Inheritance of Prophets are basically about religious laws and practices. The application of islamic laws, that is islamic government. And, on this aspect, in hadiths we read Prophet saying; "Every prophet had a successor and heir, and verily, my successor and heir is Ali." So, Ali was meant to be the successor of the Prophet and governor of islamic state leading muslims in both spiritual and political aspects (However, sadly he was denied of this right).
- Sunni hadiths from Prophet such as "We do not leave inheritance.", "My heirs will not inherit a Dinar or a Dirham" and Shia hadiths from Prophet such as "And the Ulama (scholars) are the heirs of the Anbiya (Prophets); and the Anbiya did not leave dinars and dirhams as inheritance; but they left knowledge. Therefore whosoever takes knowledge has taken a great portion." stress this aspect of inheritance. But, they are all figurative, not literal. It tells the Prophets do not care about wealth. But, it does not mean, we should deprive their inheritors from whatever wealth is left from them. Because, in the end, the inheritors of the Prophet are also human beings and they have needs. What would happen to Aal-e Muhammad when even taking charity is haram for them? How would they live by when even they are denied from what's left from their own father? And imagine how sacrificing they were.. That's why we sadly see, Imam Ali even had to sell his Zulfiqar. The sword with which Islam was protected..