• Misyar Marriage

    is carried out via the normal contractual procedure, with the specificity that the husband and wife give up several rights by their own free will...

  • Taraveeh a Biad'ah

    Nawafil prayers are not allowed with Jama'at except salatul-istisqa' (the salat for praying to Allah to send rain)..

  • Umar attacks Fatima (s.)

    Umar ordered Qunfuz to bring a whip and strike Janabe Zahra (s.a.) with it.

  • The lineage of Umar

    And we summarize the lineage of Omar Bin Al Khattab as follows:

  • Before accepting Islam

    Umar who had not accepted Islam by that time would beat her mercilessly until he was tired. He would then say

Friday, November 1, 2013

Some Questions by Sunni Scholars regarding Fadak and their Replies

Questions by Sunni Scholars : 
Q1. why Solomon (as) has been mention in Quran as a sole heir? why not other sons of David(as)?

Q2. if fadak was inheritance ,why wives of Rasool Allah(saw) had no share in it ?

Q3. As far as the verse of Zakariya (as) is concerned then the verse says that give me a heir who inherit from me and Aal of Jacob! now if this is material inheritance why son would inherit from the whole Aal of Jacob? do you inherit from your father or whole family? 

Replies by Shia Scholars : 

Regarding your questions on inheritance and fadak:

1) Quran 27:16 says; "And Solomon inherited David." It does not say, ".. Only Solomon..". It says, "..And Solomon.." And shia muslims show this verse as proof for those taking the sunni hadith; "We prophets leave no inheritance." literally. So, basic question is, why take this sunni hadith literally, but not Quranic verse such? Whereas, as far as I know, wahabis take even the metaphorical verses about attributes of God literally, and unfortunately attribute body organs and movements to God (just like al-mujasima). So, why not take the verse about inheritance literally? And why look for an esoteric dimension and limit it to metaphor just in this case? So, it tells me, wahabi analysis of Quran is sided. It does not shape itself according to Quran but it tries to shape the Quran with interpretations to suit an agenda. And the agenda is to try to bash shia and sunni islam. Especially shia islam, because in politics there is no better than shia muslims.

Shia islamic belief is that Quranic verses should be interpreted by pure ones (Prophet Muhammad and Ahlulbayt) and by those inspiring from them. If others do it on their own, they may fall into error and distort the message. Anyway. Regarding the verse and all other verses in Quran, islamic belief is that, we should never limit the meanings of verses. Let me quote from a tafsir for an-Naml 16;

The purpose of the Arabic word /wariθa/ in this verse is to inherit both wealth and government, not the knowledge and prophethood, because prophethood is not something to be inherited, and the knowledge of prophets is not heritable either since it is not something to be acquired.
In this verse, at first it points to inheriting Solomon from his father David. It says:

“ And Solomon inherited David …”
Here, commentators have some different ideas as for the meaning of heritage and that what that is:

Some believe that it is only the heritage of knowledge because, according to their own thought, prophets do not leave any heritage of their own properties.
Some others have mentioned inheritance is confined to propertyand government,because thisword recallsthat concept to the mind, before anything else.
And same commentators have rendered it into the language of speaking with the birds.

But regarding to the fact that the verse is general and, in the later Qur’ānic sentences the words are also about both knowledge and all other merits, there is no reason to limit the concept of the verse. Thus, Solomon had been the heir of all merits of his father. The traditions narrated from Ahl-ul-Bayt (a.s.) have reasoned to this verse before those who said that prophets do not leave any heritage and laid emphasis on the tradition which says: “We prophets do not leave any heritage”. They have reasoned that since the said tradition contrasts to the Book of Allah, it is invalid.
So, the verse is general, Solomon inherited all merits of his father, including his Kingdom and personal wealth (e.g. backsmith market). So, Prophets can inherit from one another. We can not limit the concept of inheritance to knowledge. Again, Solomon inherited all merits of his father.

What about other children of David? Did they not inherit anything from David?

a) "Inheritance" of Prophethood: Prophethood is not inherited due to bloodline. Because, "Allah chooses for Himself whom He wills..." (Quran, 42:13) and He "... chooses from the angels messengers and from the people." (Quran, 22:75). So, it is God to choose messengers to guide us. And "He knows what is before them and what will be after them. And to Allah will be returned [all] matters." (Quran, 22:76). So, we can not question God why He chose Joseph (to take the message) and not other children of Jacob or why He chose Solomon over other children of David or Ali over other companions of Muhammad [knowing that there is no Prophet after Muhammad.. The point I make is related to Wilayah (guardianship) not Nubuwwah (prophethood). As stated in Hadith al-Manzilah, Ghadir Khumm and many other occasions..] So, God chooses messengers in and out of a lineage, and when He appoints messengers and leaders in an offspring, he does not have to appoint every children as such (see, Quran, 2:124). However, when He chooses a sibt [offspring; (grand)son] of Prophet as Prophet (e.g. Jesus) or Imam (e.g. Hussain), we metaphorically say they inherited the legacy.
"Inheritance" of Government (wilayah): Solomon was a king. And there had to be another king leading the believers after him (succession). And successorship is not inherited due to bloodline. However, the household can not be denied from succession either. I am sure you already know that, Prophets care for human beings so much. (e.g. "Then maybe you will kill yourself with grief, sorrowing after them, if they do not believe in this announcement." Quran, 18:6). And for those already believing, the prophets need waliyy (guide, guardian, friend) (or plural awliya) and imam (or plural aimmah) to take the message and lead their nation after them. And this is so important that without it the the duty of Prophethood is regarded as incomplete. (Please refer to Quran 5:67, Ghadir Khumm and revelation of Quran 5:3:)

So, the successors are appointed. [I don't want to discuss divine selection or human election here. But, I can summarize the islamic belief as, the human election is valid within rules unless there's already a divinely appointed leader. And, please, please study Quran 2:246-252, Talut/Saul's appointment by Prophet, objections to divine election and successorship, the testing of the faithful with river etc. I think, history partially repeated itself in the case of Imam Ali. Divine election in succession to the Prophet was opposed with baseless claims, yet, even human election was also opposed. (e.g. 1st caliph was chosen in Saqifah, in the absence of many companions including Imam Ali who was busy with burial of Prophet. or 2nd caliph was chosen by the first caliph, not by people. And this raises the question, why not obey Prophet in appointing successor but obey Abu Bakr in it. or 3rd calips was chosen by a group of sided people again appointed by the previous caliph. It seems, not only divine election was opposed, but also democracy thingie.)] Anyway, on election of Anbiya (Prophets) and/or Awliya (Guides), they need to be known first. And, who better than relatives to focus on? Because, one knows his family members better than anyone. So, the Prophets focus on their family members first (see, Quran, 26:214). If there is a suitable person, they may pray God that he is chosen as successor; or even when they don't have any relatives, they may pray God that they have children (to raise them well and) to take the message. (Please see, Quran, 2:124, 12:5, 19:5, 20:29-32 etc.) So, successorship is not inherited due to bloodline. Yet, household of a Prophet can not be denied of that right either. What's more, since they raise and live in a house of revelation, they are more focused on. (It is a fact that, when someone is a relative of and close to the Prophets, he has an amazing blessing. And he has more responsibilities and is held accountable more. That's the same reason, Abu Lahab is condemned in Quran more than anyone. See: Quran, Surah 111. Or see when God holds wives of the Prophet more accountable; Quran, 33:30-31) Again, what I am saying is, household is focused on more. If there's someone deserving to take the message and lead the nation, he is chosen (e.g. Solomon and Ali as true successors of Prophets. Former being a Rasoul/Messenger while latter being a Waliyy/Guide..) If there is someone out there deserving it more than the close ones, then, he is chosen (e.g. Talut/Saul.) And, surely Solomon was more deserving than the other children of David or other children of Israel.. Likewise, Imam Ali was more deserving than the other relatives and companions of the Prophet, as pointed by Lady Aisha: "The most beloved of women to the Messenger of Allah was Fatimah." So it was said: 'From the men?' She said: 'Her husband, as I knew him to fast much and stand in prayer much." (Tirmidhi) See the logic of Lady Aisha? She does not say, Prophet loved Ali, because he was his cousin and son in law. As Prophet had other cousins and other closer relatives. Prophet's love and focus on Imam Ali was, like everything he did, for God.. Same goes for Jacob's love for Joseph.. David's love for and election of Solomon.. Muhammad's love for and appointment of Ali.. Former ones had more relatives, yet they focused on specifically the latter ones.. And reason lies in these specific successors..

c) Inheritance of Knowledge: Knowledge is not inherited. It is acquired. And whether in bloodline or else, one acquiring the knowledge of the previous ones can be called inheritor as metaphor.

d) Inheritance of Wealth: Wealth is inherited. And Solomon and his brothers were not denied of this right. The verse clearly states "Solomon inherited David." But, it does not mention whether or not his brothers inherited. So, the verse is just about Solomon inheriting. And we can not limit the concept of inheriting in the verse. So, all children of David inherited David's wealth, but Solomon inherited both wealth and government (succession).

2) Fadak was not inheritance according to shia islamic sources. It was a gift from Prophet Muhammad to Lady Fatimah. And, if we go with sunni sources and suppose it was inheritance, you should know that "widows do not inherit anything from the land of a house or a garden or a farm, or from any other land, nor do they inherit from the proceeds of such lands." And as al-Ahzab 30-31 states, respected wives of the Holy Prophet must have been very careful, knowing that, they were not supposed to leave their houses (33:33) or contact with men unless they had to (33:32)..

3) Correction. Inheritance of Prophets are NOT JUST material. But it can include material objects (usually for tabarruk, blessings). And, it surely can be if God wishes. See Saul and a certain group of believers inheriting the holy relics of aal (progeny) of Moses and aal of Aaroon, see Quran, 2:248


- We must not limit the meanings of concepts in Quranic verses. Prophets can inherit from one another in Knowledge, Prophethood and Kingdom (that is succession) (but not as a result of lineage, rather on divine selection with and with no need of prayers) as well as in wealth.

- Inheritance of Prophets are basically about religious laws and practices. The application of islamic laws, that is islamic government. And, on this aspect, in hadiths we read Prophet saying; "Every prophet had a successor and heir, and verily, my successor and heir is Ali." So, Ali was meant to be the successor of the Prophet and governor of islamic state leading muslims in both spiritual and political aspects (However, sadly he was denied of this right).

- Sunni hadiths from Prophet such as "We do not leave inheritance.", "My heirs will not inherit a Dinar or a Dirham" and Shia hadiths from Prophet such as "And the Ulama (scholars) are the heirs of the Anbiya (Prophets); and the Anbiya did not leave dinars and dirhams as inheritance; but they left knowledge. Therefore whosoever takes knowledge has taken a great portion." stress this aspect of inheritance. But, they are all figurative, not literal. It tells the Prophets do not care about wealth. But, it does not mean, we should deprive their inheritors from whatever wealth is left from them. Because, in the end, the inheritors of the Prophet are also human beings and they have needs. What would happen to Aal-e Muhammad when even taking charity is haram for them? How would they live by when even they are denied from what's left from their own father? And imagine how sacrificing they were.. That's why we sadly see, Imam Ali even had to sell his Zulfiqar. The sword with which Islam was protected..



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